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[Dealing with massive bleeding and associated perioperative coagulopathy : Recommendations for action of the German Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine.]

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Anaesthesist. 2013 Feb 15;
Authors: Grottke O, Frietsch T, Maas M, Lier H, Rossaint R
Abstract
Massive bleeding with coagulopathy and hemorrhagic shock poses a potential threat to life in numerous clinical settings. Optimal treatment including the prevention of exsanguination necessitates a standardized and interdisciplinary approach. Several studies have shown the importance of massive transfusion protocols and standardized coagulation algorithms to improve survival of severely bleeding patients and to avoid secondary complications. Thus, the Helsinki declaration for patient safety in anesthesiology demands the implementation of clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of patients requiring massive transfusion. This paper introduces a standardized algorithm for the treatment of patients with massive bleeding which was developed in consensus with the German Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (DGAI).
PMID: 23407716 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Argon reduces neurohistopathological damage and preserves functional recovery after cardiac arrest in rats.

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Br J Anaesth. 2013 Feb 7;
Authors: Brücken A, Cizen A, Fera C, Meinhardt A, Weis J, Nolte K, Rossaint R, Pufe T, Marx G, Fries M
Abstract
BACKGROUND: /st>Xenon has profound neuroprotective effects after neurological injury and is currently undergoing phase 2 clinical trials in cardiac arrest patients. However, xenon is very costly, which might preclude its widespread use. We hypothesized argon, which is more available, might also protect central nervous tissues and allow better functional recovery in a rodent model of global cerebral ischaemia. METHODS: /st>Fourteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 7 min of cardiac arrest and 3 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). One hour after successful CPR, animals were randomized to either ventilation with 70% argon in oxygen (n = 7) for 1 h or 70% nitrogen (controls, n=7). A neurological deficit score (NDS) was calculated daily for the following 7 days, then the animals were killed and the brains harvested for histopathological analyses. RESULTS: /st>All animals survived. Control rats had severe neurological dysfunction, while argon-treated animals showed significant improvements in the NDS at all time points. This was paralleled by a significant reduction in the neuronal damage index in the neocortex and the hippocampal CA 3/4 region. CONCLUSIONS: /st>Our study demonstrates that a single 1 h application of 70% argon significantly reduced histopathological damage of the neocortex and hippocampus, associated with a marked improvement in functional neurological recovery. PMID: 23393152 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Xenon and Isoflurane Reduce Left Ventricular Remodeling after Myocardial Infarction in the Rat.

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Anesthesiology. 2013 Jan 29;
Authors: Roehl AB, Funcke S, Becker MM, Goetzenich A, Bleilevens C, Rossaint R, Steendijk P, Hein M
Abstract
BACKGROUND:: Xenon and isoflurane are known to have cardioprotective properties. We tested the hypothesis that these anesthetics positively influence myocardial remodeling 28 days after experimental perioperative myocardial infarction and compared their effects. METHODS:: A total of 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 60 min of coronary artery occlusion and 120 min of reperfusion. Prior to ischemia, the animals were randomized for the different narcotic regimes (0.6 vol% isoflurane, 70 vol% xenon, or intraperitoneal injection of s-ketamine). Acute injury was quantified by echocardiography and troponin I. After 4 weeks, left ventricular function was assessed by conductance catheter to quantify hemodynamic compromise. Cardiac remodeling was characterized by quantification of dilatation, hypertrophy, fibrosis, capillary density, apoptosis, and expression of fetal genes (α/β myosin heavy chains, α-skeletal actin, periostin, and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase). RESULTS:: Whereas xenon and isoflurane impeded the acute effects of ischemia-reperfusion on hemodynamics and myocardial injury at a comparable level, differences were found after 4 weeks. Xenon in contrast to isoflurane or ketamine anesthetized animals demonstrated a lower remodeling index (0.7 ± 0.1 vs. 0.9 ± 0.3 and 1.0 ± 0.3 g/ml), better ejection fraction (62 ± 9 vs. 49 ± 7 and 35 ± 6%), and reduced expression of β-myosin heavy chain and periostin. The effects on hypertrophy, fibrosis, capillary density, and apoptosis were comparable. CONCLUSIONS:: Compared to isoflurane and s-ketamine, xenon limited progressive adverse cardiac remodeling and contractile dysfunction 28 days after perioperative myocardial infarction.
PMID: 23364599 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Nonsurgical techniques to control massive bleeding.

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Anesthesiol Clin. 2013 Mar;31(1):41-53
Authors: Zentai C, Grottke O, Spahn DR, Rossaint R
Abstract
Significant advancements in nonsurgical and surgical approaches to control bleeding in severely injured patients have also improved the treatment of critical trauma-related coagulopathy. Nonsurgical procedures such as angiographic embolization are progressively considered to terminate arterial bleeding from pelvic fractures. The disturbance of coagulation may aggravate bleeding and hamper surgical procedures. The administration of coagulation factors and factor concentrates may be useful for correcting systemic coagulopathy and reducing the need for fresh frozen plasma, platelet, and red blood cell transfusions, which are associated with various adverse outcomes. In this review, nonsurgical management of critical trauma bleeding is discussed.
PMID: 23351533 [PubMed - in process]

Prehospital digital photography and automated image transmission in an emergency medical service - an ancillary retrospective analysis of a prospective controlled trial.

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Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2013;21:3
Authors: Bergrath S, Rossaint R, Lenssen N, Fitzner C, Skorning M Abstract
UNLABELLED: ABSTRACT:
BACKGROUND: Still picture transmission was performed using a telemedicine system in an Emergency Medical Service (EMS) during a prospective, controlled trial. In this ancillary, retrospective study the quality and content of the transmitted pictures and the possible influences of this application on prehospital time requirements were investigated.METHODS: A digital camera was used with a telemedicine system enabling encrypted audio and data transmission between an ambulance and a remotely located physician. By default, images were compressed (jpeg, 640 x 480 pixels). On occasion, this compression was deactivated (3648 x 2736 pixels). Two independent investigators assessed all transmitted pictures according to predefined criteria. In cases of different ratings, a third investigator had final decision competence. Patient characteristics and time intervals were extracted from the EMS protocol sheets and dispatch centre reports.RESULTS: Overall 314 pictures (mean 2.77 ± 2.42 pictures/mission) were transmitted during 113 missions (group 1). Pictures were not taken for 151 missions (group 2). Regarding picture quality, the content of 240 (76.4%) pictures was clearly identifiable; 45 (14.3%) pictures were considered "limited quality" and 29 (9.2%) pictures were deemed "not useful" due to not/hardly identifiable content. For pictures with file compression (n = 84 missions) and without (n = 17 missions), the content was clearly identifiable in 74% and 97% of the pictures, respectively (p = 0.003). Medical reports (n = 98, 32.8%), medication lists (n = 49, 16.4%) and 12-lead ECGs (n = 28, 9.4%) were most frequently photographed. The patient characteristics of group 1 vs. 2 were as follows: median age - 72.5 vs. 56.5 years, p = 0.001; frequency of acute coronary syndrome - 24/113 vs. 15/151, p = 0.014. The NACA scores and gender distribution were comparable. Median on-scene times were longer with picture transmission (26 vs. 22 min, p = 0.011), but ambulance arrival to hospital arrival intervals did not differ significantly (35 vs. 33 min, p = 0.054).CONCLUSIONS: Picture transmission was used frequently and resulted in an acceptable picture quality, even with compressed files. In most cases, previously existing "paper data" was transmitted electronically. This application may offer an alternative to other modes of ECG transmission. Due to different patient characteristics no conclusions for a prolonged on-scene time can be drawn. Mobile picture transmission holds important opportunities for clinical handover procedures and teleconsultation.
PMID: 23324531 [PubMed - in process]

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